510-2 B Progress gnu nw»v..vr............ o A variety of cost-effective grant monitoring procedures were developed. These included extensive telephone monitoring, reviews of annual per- formance reports and other data, and on-site cross-program monitoring. o All project directors were sent an update letter outlining an inter- pretation of the meaning of "full financial need11* It emphasized that Section 646.20 of the regulations requires an assurance from all funded applicants that participants will receive sufficient financial assistance. C. Costs, Benefits, and Effectiveness Types of Benefits: Institutions of higher education provide remedial or bi1ingual teaching9 guidance, or counseling services to students with an educationally, culturally, or economically deprived background, or with a physical handicap, or limited English-speaking ability* Program Scope: In FY 1984, ED made 664 awards for an average award of $101,348.Projects served 154,400 participants at an average Federal cost per participant of $436» Total program awards were $67,294,974. Program Effect 1 versess: The System Development Corporation conducted an impact evaluation of the Special Services for Oisadvantaged Students Program (SSDS). A follow-up survey, conducted in academic year 1982-83, attempted to determine longer-term program impact * The follow-up study, which Involved students who would normally be in their fourth-year of college* reported the following findings (E.2): o A fairly high proportion (almost 60 percent) of the freshmen included in the 1979-80 study who responded were still enrolled in postsecondary education three years later, and of those who persisted 86 percent were full-time students. o While not the only consideration, financial aid was an important factor in determining whether the study participants were still enrolled or had left school * o Moderate levels of academic support services (tutoring, group instruction, academic counseling) provided in a student1s freshman year were associated .with longer enrollment, and with greater numbers of course units attempted and completed, compared to the results for the students who received no special services. o Students who received moderate levels of services appear to have had fewer academic deficiencies to overcome than those who received the full range of services or more intensive services* o Academic support services received after the freshman year were less successful in improving long-term academic performance. Students who needed post-freshman year services appear to have had the greatest learning deficiencies and the least success In surmounting them.lifornia at Los Angeles, California, 1984.